tigersheds.com is a part of the Tigerbox group.
All orders for goods shall be deemed to be an offer by the buyer to purchase goods pursuant to these Terms and Conditions and are subject to acceptance by Tigerbox. Tigerbox may choose not to accept an order for any reason. Purchasing can be made through Tigerbox’s secure online payment system or over the telephone with a member of Tigerbox’s dedicated sales team.
All prices and charges on this site are shown in UK pounds sterling and include any VAT payable. The total costs of your order will be the price of the products that you order and the cost of any additional services or products you choose. All costs will be set out clearly in your shopping trolley before you submit your order. Prices, offers and products are subject to availability and may change before (but not after) Tigerbox accept your order. Tigerbox will not provide a refund to reflect a reduction in price for any item purchased and subsequently reduced in price at a later date. If for any reason a product becomes unavailable after the point of your order Tigerbox reserve the right to supply you with a product that is, in our opinion, a suitable alternative item. In the unlikely event of this occurrence you would be notified and given the option to accept the alternative product or cancel your order. Tigerbox always endeavours to ensure that all information on this website is accurate. However, if an error does occur in the price or description, Tigerbox will inform you and ask you whether you still wish to continue with the order. If a product or service is listed at an incorrect price due to a typographical error or an error in the pricing information received by Tigerbox from our suppliers then we reserve the right to cancel the contract. In these circumstances you will not be entitled to seek compensation for disappointment suffered or for any losses which you might otherwise have incurred. Tigerbox reserve the right to change the price of a product at any time. If you require any products in bulk please contact the dedicated Tigerbox sales team on 0845 838 5676 for potential discounts.
Tigerbox accepts card payments via Mastercard, Visa, Visa Electron, Visa Debit, Solo and Maestro (formerly Switch). Payment is deducted when the order is processed. Payment can be made either on the website using the secure online payment system, or over the telephone. If the order is made over telephone, confirmation will be given verbally at the time of the call by one of Tigerbox’s dedicated sales staff. If an order is made through the secure online payment system, after payment is received, Tigerbox shall confirm by email the details, description and price of the goods purchased together with information containing your rights to cancel the order. Payment of all charges for products on order must be made in full before dispatch of the goods. Tigerbox reserve the right to refuse orders if deemed necessary.
Stock and Sizing
All Tiger wooden buildings are made to order and as such, require manufacture prior to delivery. If you have provided a valid email address with your order, you will receive notification via email when your order has entered manufacture. This can also be checked on the online tracking facility. If the product you have ordered is a stocked item, on rare occasions whereby such goods ordered by the purchaser are not available from stock, Tigerbox will notify the buyer and give them the option to wait until the goods are available from stock, accept an alternative product, or be reimbursed and receive a full refund. Very occasionally products featured on the website may be known by different branding names but are in fact the same product stipulated by the manufacturer. Tigerbox reserve the right to supply these as the products listed on our website, despite in some circumstances being identical. Occasionally, manufacturers update and improve products and Tigerbox reserve the right to supply these to fulfil an order.
Sizes are approximate only and generally, metric dimensions provided refer to external dimensions (not including the roof overhang). It should also be noted that the exact size dimensions of timber components cannot be guaranteed due to the natural variance of this material depending on its surroundings and climate. For specific dimensions please consult our technical department.
All images and photography used is purely for illustrative purposes only. Actual specifications may vary to those shown and product colours may vary slightly due to the digital photography process and variations in individual user monitor settings this will not detract from the overall quality or performance of the product.
Delivery (Excluding Flex Apex, Metal Sheds, Plastic Sheds, and Greenhouses)
Tigerbox provide estimated working day lead times for delivery. However, these timescales are not a maximum or guaranteed time in which the delivery will take place. When your product is ready for delivery and the delivery is then scheduled, you will be contacted by Tigerbox to book in the delivery with you via email or telephone. At this time you will receive your confirmed delivery date and estimated two-hour arrival timeslot. Tigerbox make every effort to deliver goods within a reasonable variance of the published estimated timescales; however, extended delays are occasionally inevitable due to unforeseen factors beyond our control and therefore delivery times are not guaranteed. Estimated delivery dates are not part of the contract between Tigerbox and the buyer, and Tigerbox shall be under no liability for any delay or failure to deliver the products within the estimated timescales. Unless otherwise agreed in writing by the purchaser and Tigerbox, the delivery of goods will take place at the delivery address you have specified in the order. When the delivery arrives at the specified address someone must be present to accept it and the delivery must be signed for. Alternatively, an agreement can be made prior to delivery whereby written confirmation, in the form of an email or fax, stating permission is provided to drop the goods off at your given address without the requirement to have anyone present to sign for them. Providing that Tigerbox delivers the goods to the address you have specified in the order then the goods will be deemed to have been delivered and Tigerbox will not be liable to you for any subsequent claim of non-delivery. Tigerbox does not have to be satisfied that the person who accepts delivery at the given address is you (or authorised by you to accept delivery of the goods). The quantity or content of any consignment of goods or components of a good that are recorded by Tigerbox upon dispatch shall be conclusive evidence of the quantity or content received by you upon delivery unless you can provide conclusive evidence to the contrary. Tigerbox also reserves the right to suspend future deliveries of goods and cancel any contracts with you if you have a bankruptcy order made against you or make an arrangement or composition with your creditors; convene a meeting of creditors or enter into liquidation. We also reserve the right to suspend any future deliveries should you fail to observe/perform any of your obligations under the contract between you and Tigerbox. This includes any contract between yourself and Tigerbox for the sale and purchase of the goods incorporating these conditions, whether effected by electronic mail through this website, or otherwise.
If a delivery is made and nobody is there to sign for the product (unless a pre-agreement has been signed allowing Tigerbox to leave the product without a signature upon arrival), the product may be left in a secure location within the boundary of your property where possible. If it is not possible to leave the delivery safely, the product will be returned to base, awaiting another suitable dispatch date. In these circumstances the purchaser will be held responsible for paying all additional delivery costs to have the item re-transported. For some of Tigerbox’s products, such as log cabins and certain other large garden buildings, it is your responsibility to ensure someone is available to assist in the off loading of these goods upon arrival. This person must be fit and capable of lifting items of up to 25kg in weight as Tigerbox may only send one delivery driver and some components can weigh up to 50kg. The largest size of Shed panel we deliver is 10ft and the largest Cabin pack is 20ft so if you are restricted for access, it may be advisable to consult our staff for further information. The delivery driver will not assist with carrying any components through your property. Unless expressly stated, Tigerbox assumes that the purchaser will be available for delivery at any time with prior notice. Tigerbox requests that the provides information relating to any narrow lanes, narrow or low bridges, weight restrictions, or similar vehicle restrictions on the available routes to access the delivery address. Tigerbox require notification of any parking/stopping restrictions at the delivery address in advance of delivery. If our vehicle cannot reach your property, the goods may be left at the nearest accessible point.
Delivery of Sheds:
• Delivery is kerbside only unless discussed and agreed as otherwise prior to delivery. You will need an appropriate space as close to your kerbside as possible for our driver to deliver to.
• Garden Sheds and most garden buildings are delivered in single panels and unloaded by hand on arrival.
• Movement of delivered goods beyond kerbside is the responsibility of the customer unless discussed and agreed as otherwise prior to delivery. In any case, movement of the panels beyond kerbside is at the driver's discretion and the driver will need to assess access on arrival in order to ensure that he can safely move the panels to any requested location beyond kerbside.
• The driver will not carry panels through your property as he is not insured to do so.
• If there is a problem with any component you have received or if something is missing, please email the office and confirm the issue with photographs where applicable.
Delivery of Log Cabins:
• All log cabins are delivered kerbside only. We request that you leave a free space as close to the kerbside as possible for the driver to leave the building.
• Movement of delivered goods beyond kerbside is the responsibility of the customer.
• If possible, please ensure there are no obstacles, such as your (or your neighbours’) vehicle, that could impede the unloading on the delivery day.
• Please advise us beforehand if there any overhead obstacles such as overhang trees or telephone cables that could impede the unloading on the delivery day.
• If there is a problem with any component you have received or if something is missing, please email the office and confirm with photographs where applicable.
If an attempted delivery is made but cannot be completed as a result of the purchaser failing to meet the terms of delivery including but not limited to there being no-one present and capable to assist our driver, no access to or stopping at the delivery address, or no suitable location in which to leave the delivery, the building(s) will be returned to base and the purchaser will be liable for all costs associated with a second attempted delivery. Tigerbox cannot be held responsible for any damage or injury sustained due to incorrect unloading, usage or assembly of any of our products.
Please also view the delivery section for more information.
Please note - If you order a garden shed or log cabin outside of our delivery zone or if the building you have ordered is customised or bespoke, the lead time can be extended. Please contact us for further information.
Cancellation of Delivery Bookings
If you have accepted a delivery and wish to cancel the accepted delivery booking, we will require a minimum of 3 working days’ notice prior to the scheduled delivery date. If a delivery is cancelled within 3 working days of the accepted delivery date, the delivery loading process will have commenced and cancellation of the accepted delivery will incur a failed delivery charge.
Pro Installation (Excluding Metal Sheds and Plastic Sheds)
In the event that a customer purchases an installation service for one of the products on the website the customer is thereby agreeing to adhere to the terms and conditions of the installation service. This includes but is not limited to the provision of a firm and level base being in place and accessible on the agreed date of installation. Failure to provide such a base will result in the installation being aborted at the expense of the customer who would then have to pay further charges should they wish to re-arrange the installation. For comprehensive instructions on how to assemble products safely and correctly please visit the help centre on this site.
Installation is available on almost each and every timber garden shed and log-cabin. To add this option to your order simply look for the ‘additional extras’ tab near the top of any product page and select the ‘pro-installation’ option.
Tigerbox installations are carried out by our subcontracted installation partners. The pro-installation team will contact you in advance of the installation of your garden building to arrange a suitable time and date for the fitting – this may be on a separate date to that of the delivery. You do not have to be around on the day of installation should you give the installation team permission to access your property.
As standard, cabin installation does not cover the installation of roof shingles. If you purchase a cabin with shingles and would like the shingles to be installed in addition to the building itself you must also add on the 'shingle installation' option at additional cost. The standard shingle installation option is an addition to installation of the building by our appointed third-party professional installation team. If you wish to have installation of the Shingles only, an additional price is applicable.
The delivery driver is not responsible for the installation of any building delivered.
The Installers have a guide of up to 10 working days following the delivery in which to arrange and complete the installation unless discussed and agreed as otherwise. This is a guideline not a guaranteed timeframe and may be extended during busier periods.
It is essential that the installer is able to use a short and easily accessible route to take the building from where it has been placed during delivery to where it is required to be installed. This includes ensuring there are no obstacles such as narrow pathways or archways. If the access route from kerbside to base is particularly long or difficult to manoeuvre you may be required to move the building into position yourself before the installers arrive - please clarify this in advance with your installer if you are unsure to avoid the possibility of a re-visit charge having to be applied.
It is essential that a Firm and Level base be in place before installation can take place - failure to provide this, in the opinion of the professional installation team, will result in the installation being aborted with a re-visit charge being required to be paid by the customer should another appointment have to be made.
It is essential that the base whereby the installation is required to take place is clear and easily accessible with sufficient working space around all sides (generally considered to be approximately 18 inches) before the install team arrives and if this is not possible, the customer will inform Tigerbox prior to the installation taking place. Failure to provide a cleared base with reasonable working space will result in the installation being aborted with a re-visit charge being required to be paid by the customer should another appointment have to be made.
It is essential that you have fully checked the delivery of your garden building to ensure that all components, parts and fixings are present and correct before the install team arrives (informing us before-hand should there have been any shortages) to ensure that they have everything required for installation to take place.
Please note: when the Pro-Installation option is selected the window material on all buildings will be pinned into position only by the installer. It is essential that all windows are subsequently sealed as soon as possible after assembly. This could be achieved via the application of silicone, putty, timber beading or any other suitable ‘water tight’ solution at the customers own preference.
Please note: when the Pro-Installation option is selected only the building will be installed and no other additional extras will be fitted or applied unless specifically stated and paid for. This means that items such as alarms, hasp & staples and solar lights will not be fitted and treatments will not be applied – roof shingles will only be fitted if the shingle installation option is selected and paid for in addition to the installation of the building unless agreed as otherwise.
Product Maintenance and Guarantee
All manufacturers on this website have been carefully selected as brand leaders in their chosen market and the products they supply are fully safety and quality control checked before despatch. In general, our manufacturers offer a full 12 month parts warranty upon all their products. Some manufacturers also offer an extended guarantee on certain product ranges, in such cases this will be clearly marked on the product page and full details and terms of the guarantees provided as appropriate.
The Tiger 10 Year, Elite 15 Year, Tiger Cabin 10 Year, and Tigercub 10 Year Timber Guarantees offer protection against general timber rot and decay – the guarantee does not cover the product against timber splits or warping which may occur naturally over time. To maintain the validity of these guarantees the product must be assembled strictly in accordance with the instructions supplied, treated annually (internally and externally) with an appropriate high quality preservative and all glazing units must be sealed (Internally and externally) with silicone or other water tight sealant. For more information on how to correctly assemble and maintain your garden building please consult our comprehensive help centre.
The Tiger timber guarantees will be deemed invalid if;
• The product has not been assembled correctly by the end user in line with the assembly instructions – please see our product assembly section.
• The base upon which the product is assembled is not suitable - all buildings should be assembled on a firm and level base constructed from a suitable material – please see our build a base guide.
• The product has not been treated after delivery/assembly (internally and externally) and treated annually (internally and externally) thereafter with an appropriate high quality preservative – please see our product maintenance section.
• Any windows have not been sealed, inside and out, with silicone or other water tight sealant - please see our product maintenance section.
• The product has been customised or adapted in any way.
• At any point after assembly the building has been in contact with any trees, plants or exterior walls which could allow moisture to penetrate the timber.
• Any timber has been cut, pierced or drilled without a subsequent application of approved cut-end treatment.
• The eventual claimant was not the original purchaser of the product.
• The roofing felt or covering has been damaged or incorrectly fitted allowing water ingress – please see our product assembly section.
Please note: timber is a natural product and prone to changes in appearance, including some movement, warping and splitting, particularly in extreme weather conditions. This will not affect the structural integrity of the product – this is natural and is not covered by a guarantee.
Cancellations and Returns
The buyer shall inspect the goods immediately upon receipt and shall notify Tigerbox by email as soon as possible after the delivery has been made if the goods are damaged or do not comply with any of the contract. If the buyer fails to do so the buyer shall be deemed to have accepted the goods. Where a claim of defect or damage is made, if goods are in the condition as received (not assembled, painted, treated, or altered in any way) Tigerbox will supply/replace/repair any necessary parts to complete your agreed initial purchase. If you are a consumer you have the right, in addition to your other rights, to cancel the contract and receive a refund by informing the seller by email within 14 working days after the day of delivery of the goods. You will be asked, however, to pay the costs of the return postage/carriage to one of Tigerbox’s distribution centres or for the collection charge by one of Tigerbox’s pre-approved couriers.
If the buyer fails to return the goods following cancellation or does not pay the returning delivery fee issued by Tigerbox, Tigerbox reserve the right and is entitled to deduct the cost of recovering the goods from any refund issued, which will be up to 25% of the building price for any non-customised or standard product and up to 100% of the price for any bespoke or customised product.
If Tigerbox send you the incorrect product or if, upon receipt of all relevant evidence, we deem it has arrived faulty or damaged, you will be offered a full refund and exemption from delivery costs. Any item to be returned or replaced must be in the same condition as delivered. Tigerbox will not accept any product for return if it has been assembled, modified or customised in any way including being subject to the application of chemicals or paints.
Tigerbox will require photographic evidence of any complaints, defects, requests to return a product outside the initial 14 day period or claims of incorrect or incomplete product delivery, which can be submitted by email, fax, or letter.
Any cancellation within the initial 14 day period will be refunded within 30 days of notification to cancel being received - for any cancellation outside of this timeframe all refunds will be processed within 30 days after the product has been successfully returned. Where exchange rates of currency are involved, the refund will be made in pound sterling and at the current exchange rate. Tigerbox does not accept responsibility for any loss or gain caused by changes in the exchange rate between the time or ordering and the time of issuing a refund.
If you wish to cancel an order before it has been delivered, you must contact Tigerbox immediately. You must confirm your cancellation in writing via fax, letter, or email. If you cancel via telephone your order will be put on hold until a written cancellation has been received. If the building has been manufactured there may be a cancellation charge dependant on the individual case. If you have given us a valid email address, you will receive an update email when the building has entered the manufacturing stage.
If you have ordered a Flex Apex, the day after the order is placed, the building is collected by the approved courier of Tigerbox to be delivered to you in the three working day delivery period. In this instance, a charge for cancellation will be applied from the day after placing the order as from this time the delivery is in progress.
Please note: all sizes and measurements are approximations only and while Tigerbox will endeavour to ensure all products are manufactured as close as possible to the measurements provided we cannot be held responsible should there be a discretion in the finished size.
Bespoke / Customised Products
Goods that are ordered to your specification or not available as a standard product from our website, for example made to order sheds and log cabins, cannot be cancelled or returned once the order has entered manufacture as they are considered to be bespoke. In this case, after we have sent you our confirmation email you will have entered into a binding contract to buy the goods, and because the goods are being made to your specification you will not be able to cancel that contract. Once the goods have been delivered you can only return them if they are not of satisfactory quality or reasonably fit for the purpose and we cannot remedy the fault to your reasonable satisfaction. Orders of bespoke products may also extend the average delivery lead time.
Timber and Other Natural Products
Timber is a natural product and prone to changes in appearance, including some movement and the occurrence of small knot holes or splits in extreme temperatures and weather conditions. Any splits, knots or similar visual imperfections in the timber will not affect the structural integrity of the product in any way, are not considered to be damage, and do not render the product unfit for purpose. Whilst every effort is made to hand pick timber without visible knotholes or splits there may be occasions where timber is selected in good faith that contains what appears to be a solid knot. Over the course of time / during movement of the product etc it may occur that these small knot holes are then dislodged from the timber leaving a small knot or crack. Unfortunately we cannot be held responsible for this maturing of the product and can only offer our best advice as how to deal with this situation in the unlikely event that it should occur. When measuring timber for the purpose of technical information the absolute external dimensions will be taken from a sample piece of each component used – it should be noted that due to the complex nature of the product and machining processes that this figure will give an average measurement that could be subject to slight variance throughout the rest of the individual boards in the pack measured. Whilst every effort will be made to select only components which match the average advertised sizing this is subject to the availability of the timber that has been machined and cannot be guaranteed.
Please note: any guarantee offered does not cover the products against timber splits or warping. These are natural characteristics of the products and not defects and neither will these circumstances be accepted as a valid reason for the cancellation of an order, as this can occur naturally over time.
Events Outside of our Control
Tigerbox cannot be liable or responsible for any failure to perform, or delay in performance of any of our contracted obligations that is caused by events outside of our reasonable control (Force Majeure Event)
A Force Majeure Event includes any act, event, non-happening, omission or accident beyond our reasonable control and includes in particular (without limitation) the following:
Strikes, lockouts and other industrial actions, civil commotion, riot, invasion, terrorist attack or threat of terrorist attack, war or threat or preparation for war, fire, explosion, storm, flood, earthquake, subsidence, epidemic or other natural disaster, impossibility of the use of railways, shipping, aircraft, motor transport or other means of public or private transport, impossibility of the use of public or private telecommunications networks, any new acts, decrees, legislation, regulations or restrictions of any government.
We reserve the right to delay the completion of any of our obligations if we are hindered or prevented from doing so due to a Force Majeure Event, provided that, if the circumstances in question continue for a continuous period in excess of 120 days, either party shall be entitled to give notice in writing to the other to terminate the Agreement.
Tigerbox requests that any complaint is submitted in writing via fax, email, or letter (with accompanying photographs where appropriate) in order for us to forward to the appropriate member of staff responsible for dealing with the complaint and allow us the opportunity to thoroughly investigate. Once the details have been reviewed, a written response to the complaint will be provided.
Tigerbox can be contacted via any of the following methods;
Telephone: 0845 838 56 76
Fax: 0113 259 0135
Postal Address: Tiger Sheds, Calverley Lane, Rodley, Leeds, West Yorkshire, LS13 1NP.
Company Reg No. 132673. VAT No. 886 5322 88
As previously stated, Tigerbox reserve the right to alter the website at any time. This includes altering the products, the content, the descriptions and the prices. Tigerbox also reserves the right to alter these terms and conditions at any time. Please be aware this website, despite the utmost effort to ensure all information is accurate, may contain typographical inaccuracies. All images and photography used is purely for illustrative purposes only. Actual product colours may vary slightly due to the digital photography process and variations in individual user monitor settings and sizes/specifications may vary depending on the product in question.
Tigerbox reserve the right to approve, disapprove or display any customer review at our own discretion. Where we see fit we may correct the grammar of a customer review, but not the content unless we feel it is necessary to remove any potentially offensive or unlawful statements.
No purchase is necessary to enter any free Prize Draw. By entering into one of our free Prize Draws entrants agree to these terms and conditions and acknowledge that failure to comply with them may result in disqualification. Any free Prize Draw is only available to UK residents. Entrants must be over 18 years of age. Employees and immediate family members of employees of either Tigerbox, Tiger Sheds and their associated companies, professional advisers, advertising and promotional agencies are not eligible to take part in the Prize Draw. To enter a free Prize Draw, entrants must fill in their details on the website. Only one entry per person is permitted. Multiple or incomplete entries will be deemed invalid. Winners will be selected at random. The winning prize ("Prize") will be delivered to the winner (any UK mainland address). Tigerbox shall notify the selected winner by email within 5 days of the Prize Draw. If the Prize is declined or unclaimed by a winner, or if a winner cannot be contacted from the details supplied within 5 working days of notification a replacement winner may be drawn at Tigerbox’s discretion and will be notified by the website. The original entry that was drawn will then be forfeited. Any Prize has to be taken as offered. There is no cash equivalent to the Prize available and the Prize is non-transferable. The name of the winner will be available upon receipt of an email sent to us. By entering a Prize Draw, you agree to take part in any associated publicity relating to the Prize Draw, where required. Tigerbox reserve the right to cancel or amend these Terms and Conditions or change the Prize (to one of equivalent value) as required by the circumstances. Tigerbox cannot accept responsibility for or liability arising from participants taking part in the Prize Draw or for the Prize. Tigerbox gives no warranty or guarantee in relation to the Prize. To the fullest extent that may be excluded by the law Tigerbox accepts no responsibility for or liability arising from entrants taking part in the Prize. All activities will be undertaken at the participant's own risk. Tigerbox gives no warranty or guarantee in relation to the Prize nor any guarantee as to the number of entrants who take part in the Prize Draw. These terms and conditions shall be governed by and construed in accordance with English law. Disputes arising in connection with this Agreement shall be subject to the exclusive jurisdiction of the English courts.
Privacy and Security Policy
You may visit this website and access the public information while remaining anonymous and not revealing any personal information. Tigerbox may record details of the domains from which users visit this site and analyse the data generated to assess trends, statistics and customer’s needs. Information and data may be automatically collected through cookies. Users should familiarise themselves with the operation of cookies. Most browsers are initially set up to accept cookies. If you wish to make an online purchase from us, then you will be required to provide certain personal information as a prerequisite of being able to place an order. Tigerbox will only ask you for as much information as required to process your order and perform distribution effectively. Supplied information will be retained by Tigerbox for as long as required, kept secure and in accordance with the requirements of the 1998 Data Protection Act, and not be transferred to any party outside the European Economic Union. You may contact Tigerbox at any time and request a copy of all information stored on our system that is personal to you to ensure it is correct and up to date – there may be an administration fee charged for the provision of this data.
In accordance with our security policy, Tigerbox will endeavour to ensure that the ordering system is on a secure server and encrypted to prevent security breach and your information kept secure and not intercepted by a third party. Under no circumstances will Tigerbox hold sensitive payment details, such as your card number, expiry date and security code. All transactions are handled through our accredited payment bureaux: Sage Pay. For more information on the privacy policies of this bureaux, please refer to http://www.sagepay.co.uk/
Any content and or information which you provide to Tigerbox must be legal, truthful and comply with all applicable laws and regulations.
Tigerbox reserves the right to pass on your contact details to our specified installation partners who will contact you to arrange the Pro-Installation service if ordered and may contact you to discuss their competitive and professional installation service.
Copyright and Monitoring
The copyright in all material provided on this site is held by Tigerbox or by the original creator of the material. Except as stated herein, none of the material; may be copied, reproduced, distributed, republished, downloaded, displayed, posted or transmitted in any form or by any means, including, but not limited to, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of Tigerbox or the copyright owner. Permission is granted to display, copy, distribute and download the materials on this website for non-commercial use only, provided you do not modify the materials and that you retain all copyright and other proprietary notices contained in the materials.